Causes Of Cancer

Causes of Testicular Cancer

Whilst no-one knows for sure what causes this cancer, it can often be linked to the following:

  • A family history of cancer, in particular testicular cancer
  • Being born with an undescended testicle
  • Abnormal testicle development and infertility
  • A genetic disease in which boys are born with an extra X chromosome
  • HIV infection, or AIDS
  • Exposure to certain chemicals
  • Long-term smoking

Testicular Cancer Symptoms

Another difficulty is that there are often no symptoms, and the first indication of something wrong is when a hard, generally painless lump or swelling can be felt in the testicle. If there are symptoms, these can be:

  • The scrotum feels heavy, or there’s a dull ache
  • A sharp pain in your testicles or scrotum, which may come and go
  • The testicle feels uncomfortable
  • Enlargement of a testicle, or a change in how it feels
  • A lump (about the size of a pea, but may be larger), on the inside or the outside of the testicle. NB Most lumps or swellings are not a sign of cancer, but they should never be ignored.
  • Swelling or a sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum (hydrocele)
  • fatigue and a general feeling of being unwell

Metastatic Cancer

Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is known as metastatic cancer, in which case there may be other symptoms, such as:

  • a persistent cough
  • coughing or spitting up blood
  • breathing problems
  • swelling and enlargement of male breasts
  • a lump or swelling in your neck
  • lower back pain